Feb 072012


Guru Arjan Dev

Bhan Mathura Kachh Bhed Nahin

Guru Arjan Partakh Har     (Sri Guru Granth Sahib Page 1409)

Divine Mathura says that it does not make any difference as Guru Arjan is manifestation of  the Lord Himself.  

Guru Arjan Dev

Guru Arjan Dev (April 15, 1563 – May 30, 1606) was the fifth of the Ten Sikh Gurus. He was destined to be the first martyr in the history of the religious toleration of the sikhs.

Guru Arjan Dev's Birth Place, Goindwal Sahib, Tarn Taran, Punjab

He was born at Goindwal Sahib, a small town on the bank of the river Beas in Tarn Taran District.


Guru Ram Das

He was the youngest son of Guru Ram Das

Bibi Bhani serving food to Guru Amar Das, Child (Guru) Arjan trying to climb the bed while (Guru) Ram Das is waiting for the order from the Guru

and Bibi Bhani, the daughter of Guru Amar Das.


Baba Budha Ji

He learnt Gurmukhi script and Gurbani from Baba Budha. He was also given education in Persian, Hindi and Sanskrit languages. He had two elder brothers, Prithi Chand and Mahadev.

Baba Budha applying Gurgaddi Tilak to Guru Arjan Dev

He became Guru on September 01, 1581 after the death of his father Guru Ramdas.

Guru Amar Das

            He spent 11 years of his early life under the benign grace and tender care of his maternal grandfather Guru Amar Das at Goindwal Sahib.   


He was married to Ganga, daughter of Krishen Chand, a resident of Mao village near Phillaur in Jalandhar district. The marriage took place on June 19, 1589.


Guru Arjan completed the establishment of Amritsar. The city became popular as a place of pilgrimage for Sikhs.

Gurdwara Taran Taran Sahib

He founded other cities like Tarn Taran


and Kartarpur (Jalandhar).

Sarovar of Gurdwara Tarn Taran, Punjab

He constructed a large tank (Sarovar) and Gurdwara at Tarn Taran.

Gurdwara Baoli Sahib near the junction of Shahalmi and Dabbi Bazaars of Lahore, Pakistan

He constructed a Baoli at Dabbi-Bazar of Lahore. This baoli was demolished by Shah Jahan. Shah Jahan erected a mosque at that place. Maharaja Ranjit Singh re-established the Baoli later. At the time of partition of India in 1947, this Baoli was destroyed by the Musilm mob.


Guru Arjan Sahib also completed construction of sacred tank (Sarowar) Santokhsar

Sarovar Golden Temple Amritsar, Punjab

and the Sarovar of Golden Temple Amritsar.

Baba Budda ji sitting on a platform while the foundation stone of Golden Temple Amritsar is being laid by Sai Mian Mir, Guru Arjan Dev is standing next to Baba Budha

He gave the honor of laying the foundation stone of Harmandir Sahib (Golden Temple Amritsar) to a Muslim Saint Hazrat Mian Mir of Lahore. The foundation stone was laid on 1st Magh, Vikrami Samvat 1644 (December 1588). Doors of Golden Temple Amritsar, Punjab in all four directionsGolden Temple has doors in four directions, signifying that devotees from all caste and Religion are welcome to the sacred place.

Floor of Golden Temple Amritsar, Punjab lower than its surrounding area

Contrary to the requests of the followers, the Guru kept the floor of the Golden Temple lower than its surrounding area, signifying that his followers should be humble and polite.

Guru Arjan Dev serving the lepers at Taran Taran, Punjab1

He built a house for lepers at Tarn Taran.

The Chheharta Well. The six wheel well

He got a six-channel Persian wheel (Chheharta) well dug at village Chheharta near Amritsar for irrigation of the fields. This shows that he believed in the welfare of the   poor farmers.


Guru Ram Das had introduced the institution of Masands (representative of the Gurus at distant places) along with the principle of Daswand (Donation of ten percent of an individual’s income for the Langar (Common Kitchen) and provision of amenities to the poor and needy section of the society). This institution was responsible for spread the Sikhism to distant places in India and attracted a large number of followers.

Guru Gobind Singh

But, this system became corrupt with the passage of time. As a result, Guru Gobind Singh abolished the same in 1698.

Baba Sheikh Farid

He wanted to establish the credibility of the Sikh Religion as a casteless and secular society. Therefore, He collected the hymns of first four Guru Sahibs and Saints of various religions like Sheikh Farid ,

Bhagat Kabir

Bhagat Kabir,

Bhagat Ravi Das

Bhagat Ravi Das,

Bhagat Dhanna

Bhagat Dhanna

Bhagat Namdev

Bhagat Namdev,

Bhagat Ramanand

Bhagat Ramanand,

Bhagat Jaidev

Bhagat Jai Dev,

Bhagat Trilochan

Bhagat Trilochan,

Bhagat Beni

Bhagat Beni,

Bhagat Pipa

Bhagt Pipa


Bhagat Surdas

Bhagt Surdas


Bhagt Parmanand

Bhagat Bhikhan Shah

Bhagat Bhikhan shah

Bhagat Sain

Bhagt Sain


Bhagat Sadna

Bhagat Sadna etc. These Saints belong to different time periods, beliefs, sects and Castes.

Guru Arjan Dev dictating Adi Granth to Bhai Gurdas at Ramsar, Amritsar, Punjab

He dictated it in the form of verses to compile the Adi Granth (Guru Granth Sahib), the sole and the authentic scripture of the Sikhs. He himself contributed about 2000 verses to this Granth. This Holy Scripture is a rich form of sacred poetry. Along with spiritual awareness, it also describes the contemporary political and social life. It is probably the only script which is still published without a change in its original compilation (a hand-written manuscript).

Sri Guru Granth Sahib's First Parkash at Golden Temple Amritsar, Punjab

He installed it formally at Harmandir Sahib (Golden Temple Amritsar) on Bhadon Sudi 1st Samvat 1661 (August/September 1604) and made Baba Budha as the first Granthi (minister).  To give due respect to the Adi Granth, he offered the Gaddi (throne) to the Granth and preferred to sit among his followers.

Mughal Emperor Akbar

Adi Granth proved to be a great landmark in the history of Sikhs. Once, the emperor Akbar was mislead about the contents of Guru Granth Sahib by the people jealous of Guru Arjan. But the emperor did not find anything objectionable in the Granth. He was so impressed by the scripture that he offered 51 gold coins as a mark of respect to the Granth.

Gurdwara Guru Har Gobind at Village Wadali, Amritsar, Punjab

He toured distant places in India to spread Sikhism. He also stayed at Wadali (now it is called Guru-Di-Wadali near Amritsar for some time. He also visited

Gurdwara Guru Arjan Bilga, Jalandhar Punjab


Gurdwara Dam Dama Sahib, Patshahi Punjvi, Biliawala, Tarn Taran, Punjab


Gurdwara Sri Dukh Niwaran Sahib, Patshahi Punjvi, Sri Chola Sahib. Tarn Taran, Punjab

Chola Sahib



Gurdwara Guru Arjan Dev and Baba Mall, Malari, Punjab





Khukhe Wali

He also visited the following places in Pakistan:-

Gurdwara Tham Sahib, Jambar Kalan, Kasur, Pakistan

Jambar Kalan

Gurdwara Panjwin and Chewin Patshahi, Nankana Sahib, Pakistan

Nankana Sahib

Guru Arjan listening to the problems of the farmers

During his Guruship, Punjab was badly affected by a famine. With his influence, he convinced Mughal Emperor Akbar to reduce land revenue for that year. Therefore, the Sikhs started addressing Guru as “Sacha Patshah”.

Sai Mian Mir

A Muslim Pir, the Saint, Sain Mian Mir of Lahore had also a great affinity towards the Guru. The Pir was immensely respected by Emperor Akbar.   This made Orthodox Hindus and princely Muslims jealous of the Guru. Guru’s elder brother, Prithi Chand made an alliance with Sulhi Khan (a revenue officer). He planned to kill the Guru. But, Sulhi Khan died due slipping into a burning brick kiln.

Emperor Jahangir

After the death of Akbar in 1605, both Hindu and Muslim jealous of the Guru started instigating emperor Jahangir against the Guru. Jahangir was also jealous about Guru’s propagation of Sikhism. He promptly obliged them. Many baseless allegations were leveled against the Guru including the one that the Guru helped the rebellious Khusro. Guru Arjan Dev was arrested and taken to Lahore. The Governor of Lahore was assigned the task of the execution.

Guru Arjun Dev calmly sitting on hot iron plate while Sai Mian Mir wondering that it had no effect on the Guru inspite of the hot sand being poured on to his head in addition to heating the plate

He handed over Guru Sahib over to Chandu, a petty businessman and an orthodox Hindu of Lahore city. He tortured the Guru for three days.   Sain Mian Mir tried to intervene on behalf of the Guru but the Guru refused his help stating:

“thine doings seem sweet unto me, Nanak craves for the wealth of God’s name.”

(Guru Granth Sahib P.394).

Sri Guru Arjun Devji sitting on hot iron plate and hot sand was poured over his body at Lahore, Pakistan

During the torture period, Guru was made to sit on the hot iron plates and burning sand was poured over his naked body.

Guru Arjun Dev Ji sitting in hot boiling water at Lahore, Pakistan

He was also forced to sit in the boiling water.Guru’s body was blistered. He was chained and thrown into the river Ravi. Thus Guru Sahib left for heavenly abode on Jeth Sudi 4th (1st Harh) Samvat 1663, (May 30, 1606).  

Guru Hargobind

Before Guru Arjan Dev left the physical world, he passed the light of Guruship to his son Guru Hargobind as the next Sikh Guru.

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