Bhan Mathura Kachh Bhed Nahin
Guru Arjan Partakh Har (Sri Guru Granth Sahib Page 1409)
Divine Mathura says that it does not make any difference as Guru Arjan is manifestation of the Lord Himself.
Guru Arjan Dev (April 15, 1563 – May 30, 1606) was the fifth of the Ten Sikh Gurus. He was destined to be the first martyr in the history of the religious toleration of the sikhs.
He was born at Goindwal Sahib, a small town on the bank of the river Beas in Tarn Taran District.
He was the youngest son of Guru Ram Das
and Bibi Bhani, the daughter of Guru Amar Das.
He learnt Gurmukhi script and Gurbani from Baba Budha. He was also given education in Persian, Hindi and Sanskrit languages. He had two elder brothers, Prithi Chand and Mahadev.
He became Guru on September 01, 1581 after the death of his father Guru Ramdas.
He spent 11 years of his early life under the benign grace and tender care of his maternal grandfather Guru Amar Das at Goindwal Sahib.
He was married to Ganga, daughter of Krishen Chand, a resident of Mao village near Phillaur in Jalandhar district. The marriage took place on June 19, 1589.
Guru Arjan completed the establishment of Amritsar. The city became popular as a place of pilgrimage for Sikhs.
He founded other cities like Tarn Taran
and Kartarpur (Jalandhar).
He constructed a large tank (Sarovar) and Gurdwara at Tarn Taran.
He constructed a Baoli at Dabbi-Bazar of Lahore. This baoli was demolished by Shah Jahan. Shah Jahan erected a mosque at that place. Maharaja Ranjit Singh re-established the Baoli later. At the time of partition of India in 1947, this Baoli was destroyed by the Musilm mob.
Guru Arjan Sahib also completed construction of sacred tank (Sarowar) Santokhsar
and the Sarovar of Golden Temple Amritsar.
He gave the honor of laying the foundation stone of Harmandir Sahib (Golden Temple Amritsar) to a Muslim Saint Hazrat Mian Mir of Lahore. The foundation stone was laid on 1st Magh, Vikrami Samvat 1644 (December 1588). Golden Temple has doors in four directions, signifying that devotees from all caste and Religion are welcome to the sacred place.
Contrary to the requests of the followers, the Guru kept the floor of the Golden Temple lower than its surrounding area, signifying that his followers should be humble and polite.
He built a house for lepers at Tarn Taran.
He got a six-channel Persian wheel (Chheharta) well dug at village Chheharta near Amritsar for irrigation of the fields. This shows that he believed in the welfare of the poor farmers.
Guru Ram Das had introduced the institution of Masands (representative of the Gurus at distant places) along with the principle of Daswand (Donation of ten percent of an individual’s income for the Langar (Common Kitchen) and provision of amenities to the poor and needy section of the society). This institution was responsible for spread the Sikhism to distant places in India and attracted a large number of followers.
But, this system became corrupt with the passage of time. As a result, Guru Gobind Singh abolished the same in 1698.
He wanted to establish the credibility of the Sikh Religion as a casteless and secular society. Therefore, He collected the hymns of first four Guru Sahibs and Saints of various religions like Sheikh Farid ,
Bhagat Ravi Das,
Bhagat Jai Dev,
Bhagat Bhikhan shah
Bhagat Sadna etc. These Saints belong to different time periods, beliefs, sects and Castes.
He dictated it in the form of verses to compile the Adi Granth (Guru Granth Sahib), the sole and the authentic scripture of the Sikhs. He himself contributed about 2000 verses to this Granth. This Holy Scripture is a rich form of sacred poetry. Along with spiritual awareness, it also describes the contemporary political and social life. It is probably the only script which is still published without a change in its original compilation (a hand-written manuscript).
He installed it formally at Harmandir Sahib (Golden Temple Amritsar) on Bhadon Sudi 1st Samvat 1661 (August/September 1604) and made Baba Budha as the first Granthi (minister). To give due respect to the Adi Granth, he offered the Gaddi (throne) to the Granth and preferred to sit among his followers.
Adi Granth proved to be a great landmark in the history of Sikhs. Once, the emperor Akbar was mislead about the contents of Guru Granth Sahib by the people jealous of Guru Arjan. But the emperor did not find anything objectionable in the Granth. He was so impressed by the scripture that he offered 51 gold coins as a mark of respect to the Granth.
He toured distant places in India to spread Sikhism. He also stayed at Wadali (now it is called Guru-Di-Wadali near Amritsar for some time. He also visited
He also visited the following places in Pakistan:-
During his Guruship, Punjab was badly affected by a famine. With his influence, he convinced Mughal Emperor Akbar to reduce land revenue for that year. Therefore, the Sikhs started addressing Guru as “Sacha Patshah”.
A Muslim Pir, the Saint, Sain Mian Mir of Lahore had also a great affinity towards the Guru. The Pir was immensely respected by Emperor Akbar. This made Orthodox Hindus and princely Muslims jealous of the Guru. Guru’s elder brother, Prithi Chand made an alliance with Sulhi Khan (a revenue officer). He planned to kill the Guru. But, Sulhi Khan died due slipping into a burning brick kiln.
After the death of Akbar in 1605, both Hindu and Muslim jealous of the Guru started instigating emperor Jahangir against the Guru. Jahangir was also jealous about Guru’s propagation of Sikhism. He promptly obliged them. Many baseless allegations were leveled against the Guru including the one that the Guru helped the rebellious Khusro. Guru Arjan Dev was arrested and taken to Lahore. The Governor of Lahore was assigned the task of the execution.
He handed over Guru Sahib over to Chandu, a petty businessman and an orthodox Hindu of Lahore city. He tortured the Guru for three days. Sain Mian Mir tried to intervene on behalf of the Guru but the Guru refused his help stating:
“thine doings seem sweet unto me, Nanak craves for the wealth of God’s name.”
(Guru Granth Sahib P.394).
During the torture period, Guru was made to sit on the hot iron plates and burning sand was poured over his naked body.
He was also forced to sit in the boiling water.Guru’s body was blistered. He was chained and thrown into the river Ravi. Thus Guru Sahib left for heavenly abode on Jeth Sudi 4th (1st Harh) Samvat 1663, (May 30, 1606).
Before Guru Arjan Dev left the physical world, he passed the light of Guruship to his son Guru Hargobind as the next Sikh Guru.